Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) Examination


The course of study and examination shall be as follows: -

Part A - Theory

Duration of Examination

Max. Marks


Basic Ideas in Educational Theory

3 hours



Educational Psychology

3 hours



Modern Indian Education

3 hours


(a) Its development and Recent History

(b) Its Organisation and Practice


Methodology of Teaching - (Any Two of the following)

3 hours

(for two papers)

100 (for two subjects) 50
(for each subject)

(a) Hindi

(b) Sanskrit

(c) English

(d) History

(e) Geography

Two papers

One common paper and an alternative paper for post-graduate degree holders

(f) Civics


(g) Biological Science


(h) Physics


(i) Chemistry


(j) Mathematics


(k) Integrated Science

One Paper

(l) Economics

One Paper

(m) Physiology and Hygiene

One Paper

(n) Home Science

Two Papers

(o) Commerce

One Paper

(p) Social Studies

One Paper

(q) Psychology

One Paper

(r) Logic

One Paper

(s) Music

Two Papers

(t) Sociology

One Paper

(u) Accountancy

One Paper

(v) Art

Two Papers

(w) Punjabi

Two Papers

(x) Bengali

Two Papers

(y) Urdu

Two Papers

(z) Tamil

Two Papers

(zz) Environmental Studies

(u) Teaching of Mother Tongue (Hindi) Level - C

(j) Teaching of Mathematics Level - C

Note : The Examination questions in the methodology of the school subjects may be so designed as to test method in relation to content Direct question one the content of school subjects should be achieved.

Duration of Examination

Max. Marks


Compulsory Elective

3 hours


Any one of the following :


(a) Career Guidance

(b) School Evaluation

(c) Organisation & Administration of
Pre-School Education

(d)  Health & Physical Education in India

(e) Social & Adult Education

(f) History of Education in India

(g)  Audio-Visual Education

(h) School Library Organisation

(i) Basic Education

(j) Organisation of Co-Curricular Activities

(k) Education of Backward Children

(l) Primary Education in India

(m)  Education for Mental Health

(n) Art Education

(o)  Computer Education

(p)  Gender School and Society

(q) Education for the Children with Special Needs

(r) Educational Technology

(s) Peace Education

Note : 25% marks in each of the paper I, II, III and V and 30% marks in paper IV will be awarded as internal assessment.

Part B - Practice

Max. Marks


Practical Skill in Teaching



Sessional Practical Work

Practical School Assignments

Visual Education Projects

Tutorial Work

Psychology Practicals

Co-curricular Activities (including Physical Education)


Note : (i) The Preliminary assessment of marks in Practical Skill in teaching under Part B shall be done by internal

Note: (i) The Preliminary assessment of marks in Practical Skills in teaching under Part B shall be done by internal teachers in the teaching institution concerned, on the basis of the candidate's practice teaching during the period of training. But for standardizing the assessment done by the internal teachers, a Co-ordinating Board shall be appointed by the University for Final Assessment. The Board shall comprise 3 external and 2 internal examiners with the Dean, Faculty of Education as the Chairman.

(ii) The Board shall meet twice in a year, in November and February; and visit the teaching institution to ensure a uniform standard between the different lectures in the teaching institutions. The Board may require the production of the candidate's notebooks of records of teaching done and lessons observed.

Note: The B.Ed. Course is offered by the Department of Education, Delhi and Lady Irwin College, New Delhi. The course in Lady Irwin College is open to Home Science graduates only. Students are allowed the option, to use Hindi medium in the examination.




The main objective of this paper are : (i) to promote reflective thinking among students : (ii) to shapen their perception of the concepts involved in educational practice (iii) to enhance their capacity to formulate responses to the reality of education.

The paper is divided into three units. All the three units are, to be covered, but some options have been provided in specific areas.

Unit A:

(i)  Basic Concepts in Philosophy of Education: teaching, training, learning, inquiry and education in the context of the child's nature, growth and development.

(ii)  Methodological Options in Education: Assumptions about human nature; alternatives to behaviourism; education in the context of dialogue, activity and discovery. (Appropriate examples may be drawn from texts such as Plato's Dialogues, the Upanishads, Buber's 'I and Thou' and Krishnamurti discourse).

(iii)  Epistemological Basis of Education: Knowledge, Reason and Belief, Experience and Awareness, Values and Ideals.

Unit B :

(i)  Basic Concepts in the Sociology of Education: (i) Socialisation, (ii) Equality. (iii) Authority.

(ii)  Knowledge and ideology in relation to curriculum and textbooks.

(iii)  The role of culture, economy, and historical forces in shaping the aims of education. Dominance, conflict and resistance in the context of education.

Unit C:

(i)  Analytical study of Dewey, Gandhi, Tagore and Freire with special reference to their formulations about the Individual, Society and Nature.

(ii)  A study of secularism, nationalism and universalism.




Unit I: Introduction to Educational Psychology

a) Nature and scope of Educational Psychology.

b) Its relevance for teachers, teaching and learning.

Unit II: Human Development

a) Concept of development; general principles.

b) Physical, Cognitive, Social, Emotional and Moral Development with reference to: Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson, Kohlberg and Gilligan.

(While teaching, care should be taken to see that all aspects are taught in a unified manner and particularly the development of self should be integrated with each aspect. Special attention must be given to the perspectives as articulated by Durganand Sinha, Sudhir Kakkar and others).

Unit III: Individual Variation

a) Concept of variation and classroom implications with reference to intelligence, aptitude, creativity, emotional stability, social adjustment, self concept and interests.

b) Introduction to :

i. Socially Disadvantaged Children who are marginalized on account of class, caste, language, ethnicity or gender. First generation learners and migrant children.

ii. Gifted, Slow Learners and Underachievers

iii. Emotionally Disturbed.

iv. Children with specific learning difficulties (Dyslexia).

(Focus should be on their identification, characteristics, how they learn, classroom strategies for their facilitation and latest developments in the fields like mainstreaming, integration and inclusive education).

Unit: IV. Learning and Classroom Practices

a) Nature and Concept of Learning

b) Approaches to Learning

i. Behavioristic: Pavlov, Skinner.

ii. Social Cognitive : Bandura

iii. Cognitive : Gestalt, Information Processing

c) Factors affecting learning :

i. Personal

ii. Environmental

Unit: V. Motivation

a) Concept of motivation

b) Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation; achievement motivation.

c) Implications for classroom practices

Unit: VI. Classroom Structure, Organisation and Management

a) Goals of classroom management

b) The ecology and ethos of the classroom

c) Specific techniques for classroom management

d) Teacher's role in creating an effective learning environment

Unit: VII. Evaluation

a) Concept and approaches of evaluation: formative, summative diagnostic, norm-referenced, criterion referenced.

b) Criteria of a good tool; teacher-made and standardized

c) Tools of Evaluation:

i) Achievement, intelligence and aptitude tests

ii) Observation, rating scales, check list, anecdotal records

iii) Self-reporting and self-assessment techniques, interview schedules, interest inventories, questionnaires

Unit: VIII. Elementary Statistics

a) Organisation of data and graphical representation (frequency polygon and histogram).

b) Calculation and interpretation of mean, median, percentiles, standard deviation, quartile deviation.

c) Concepts of normal distribution and deviations their forms; correlation.




(a) Its Development and Recent History

1. Overview of the development of Modern Education System from 1800 to 1947.

2. A study of the organizational set up of the various levels of education in India and their main problems.

3. A survey of the recommendations of the various Education Commissions and Committees and their implementation during the post-independence period.

4. Critical Study of the following problems :

i) Wastage and Stagnation

ii) Three Language Formula

iii) National and Emotional integration

iv) Religious and Moral Education

v) Modernisation and Indianisation

vi) Common Scholl system and the Public School system.

vii) Vocationalization of Secondary Education

viii) Student Unrest

ix) Standards in Education

x) Imbalance in Education

(b) Its organization and practice.

The school plant and equipment. Classification of pupil Adjustment Classes. Preparation of Time table, Organization of co-curricular activities, Self-Government in school. Rewards and punishment, School relationship: headmaster - teacher - pupil - parent, Parent-teacher associations, School Records.

(c) School health services

Functions and responsibilities of teachers with reference to health and disease. Personal and social-aspects of health education. Common ailments of children, common physical defects. Conditions of healthy physical life in the school. Nutrition; School meals. Recreation, Safety education, Sex education.




(a) Hindi

(k) Integrated Science

(u) Accountancy

(b) Sanskrit

(l) Economics

(v) Art

(c) English

(m) Physiology and Hygiene

(w) Punjabi

(d) History

(n) Home Science

(x) Bengali

(e) Geography

(o) Commerce

(y) Urdu

(f) Civics

(p) Social Studies

(z) Tamil

(g) Biological Science

(q) Psychology

(zz) Environmental Studies

(h) Physics

(r) Logic

(u) Hindi (Level - C)

(i) Chemistry

(s) Music

(j) Mathematics (Level - C)

(j) Mathematics

(t) Sociology


Course 'A' is meant for preparing teachers for teaching of Hindi as a first language or official language.

Course 'B' is meant for preparing teachers for teaching of Hindi in the Senior Secondary stage as preparatory to higher education. This course is meant for only those who have a post-graduate degree in Hindi language and or/literature.

Course A

Course Content


1. The present position of Hindi in Indian School Curriculum.

2. Aims and objectives and special problems of teaching Hindi in different school contexts at different stages for :

a) Study of Hindi as mother tongue/ first language

b) Study of Hindi as official language

3. Essential elements of Hindi language - its phonetic structure, lexical and morphological structure, semantic structure, syntactic structure and written structure.

4. Development of the fundamental language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Planning and organizing methods and materials for the development of these skills at various stages.

5. Supplementary aids in teaching of Hindi at various stages.

6. Evaluation in Hindi language achievement. Need for objective based tests. Methods of evaluating achievement in the different language skills at different levels of school course.

7. Diagnostic and remedial work in Hindi. Planning of remedial exercises for improvement of deficiencies in the areas of different language skills.

8. Planning of lessons in Hindi. Specifying objectives in terms of linguistic skills and thematic content.


1. Teaching Practice - Specified number of lessons (20) in Hindi at the higher and the lower secondary stage covering lessons in developing the various language skills.

2. Practical work-related to the skill of reading:

Collection and construction of material for dialogue, recitation, speech games. Practice in model reading: reading of prose, poetry and dialogue pieces.

Study of common errors in pronunciation and construction of remedial exercises for them.

3. Practical Work related to the Skill of Reading :

Collection and preparation of appropriate materials in Hindi for effective and interesting reading by school children. Preparing a list of graded and reference material for school children.

4. Practical Work related to Skills of Writing:

Collection and analysis of common errors in spelling, Structure and usage as revealed in children's written work and planning remedial exercises.

Preparing a class magazine on children's writing.

5. Practical Work related to Testing:

Construction and administration of achievement test in Hindi.

6. Practical Work related to Co-curricular Activities:

Planning initiating or executing at least one co-curricular item in Hindi.

Course B

Course Content


1. Language situation in India and its educational implications.

2. Language and Literature: Difference and relationship, General Principles of teaching and literature.

3. Aims and objectives of teaching Hindi at the Higher Secondary stage as Preparatory to higher education.

4. Developing Advanced Oral Skills: Exercises in reading with expression, literary texts of suitable poems, plays and stories Speech training in reaction and dialogues training for public speaking.

5. Developing study skill in various literary forms of Hindi Literature. Use of reference materials for better comprehension, discussion and self-study.

6. Developing appreciation skills in Hindi: Literary appreciation - its meaning and value. Methods for teaching of Alankar and Rasa, Characterisation and critical appreciation of literary writing.

7. Developing Writing Skills - exercises in paragraph writing, letters, translations, adaption and review. Free and creative writing.

8. The equipments of Hindi teacher -

- Linguistic pedagogical

- Psychological, literary and co-curricular

- Professional growth and leadership in the field.

9. Evaluation achievement in Hindi at the advanced level Methods of evaluating various skills and interests.

10. Planning of lessons in Prose, Poetry, Drama, Novel etc. at various levels. Place and use of discussion and interpretation methods rather than explanation.

Practical Work:

1. Practical Teaching - specified number of lessons in Hindi (20) - Covering different types of lessons: prose, poetry, drama, alankar, rasa, composition, grammar. Lesson for intensive study.

2. For developing reference skills - consulting dictionaries encyclopedias, collection of material on a particular topic, collection of literary extracts containing allusions and preparing a record of their sources.

3. Selecting suitable materials in prose and poetry for teaching at higher secondary stage from modern Hindi literature.

4. For developing vocabulary - Preparing a word list on the basis of prefix, suffix, synonyms, antonyms, sandhi, samas, etc. suitable for the secondary stage.

5. Selection of some common idioms and proverbs.

6. Selection of different types of compositional exercises.

7. A critical study of an outstanding book in the field of modern Hindi literature.

8. Selection of two different prose pieces on the same topic or idea with the purpose of differentiating between emotive language and reflective language.

9. Presenting different incidents, episodes, first in objective style and later in subjective style.

10. Preparing a class magazine suitable for higher secondary stage, editing articles, writing editorials and proof reading.

11. Planning two suitable co-curricular activities at class level and inter-class level. Organizing a Hindi Club or Association in the school.

12. Preparing a list of 20 topics on imaginative essay writing.

13. Selection of poems parallel in the ideas to the poems prescribed in the higher secondary course.



Course A

The Course aims at preparing teachers to teach Sanskrit, helping them to develop competencies required to teach Sanskrit as a language -


1. The place of Sanskrit in Indian school curriculum and position.

2. Aims and objectives of teaching Sanskrit - as a classical language at different stages of educational - ladder.

3. Methods of Teaching. The Pathshala Methods. The Bhandarkar Method. The Textbook Method. The Direct, the Conversational Method, the Eclectic Method.

4. The nature of Language skills and their inter-relationship; Means of developing language control: oral work and speech training.

5. Objectives and methods of teaching different forms of lessons :

(a) Prose (b) Poetry (c) Grammar

(d) Translation (e) Composition (f) Drama

(g) Rapid Reading

6. Planning a Lesson - different approaches.

7. Motivational work and challenging assignments based on language work in Sanskrit.

8. Supplementary reading in Sanskrit: Aims and Values.

9. Audio-Visual Aids and their importance in the teaching of Sanskrit - Related co-curricular Activities.

10. Evaluation in Sanskrit - New type test and other devices.

Practical Work:

1. A critical appraisal of Sanskrit Syllabus for Secondary Classes in the Schools of Delhi or any neighbouring State.

2. Remedial work in speech training - practice in effective speech, oral skills, speech recording - practice and improvement.

3. Preparation of flash cards and other Audio-Visual Aids.

Course B

This course aims at preparing teachers with a post-graduate degree in Sanskrit for Higher Secondary Classes (+ 2 classes), helping them to develop skills and proficiency to teach Sanskrit as a language as well as literature.


1. Language situation in India and its educational implications for Sanskrit. An appraisal of the language policy and practices in India: a critique of various view points.

2. Study of Sanskrit: Different types: (a) as a classical language (b) as a composite course and (c) the Oriental (Pathshalas) type. Sanskrit in relation to the Mother tongue and Modern Indian languages.

3. A comparative analysis of various aims of teaching Sanskrit.

4. The nature and structure of Sanskrit - Its important characteristics. Phonological, morphological, semantic and others.

5. The psychology of learning a classical language; need, interest, motivation.

6. A critique of the methodology of teaching Sanskrit in India, the Traditional and the modern in the teaching of Sanskrit.

7. A critical appraisal of Sanskrit syllabus for different stages.

8. Principles and Practice in preparation of Instructional materials for pupils with varying abilities.

(a) Textbooks

(b) Supplementary Readers; and

(c) Teaching Aids: utilization of source materials.

9. Classical Text : Content, Vocabulary, Gradation

10. Problems related to the appreciation and creation of Sanskrit Literature.

11. Scope for experimental studies in the teaching of Sanskrit.

Practical work:

1. Preparation of graded and controlled series of exercises leading to the use of:

(a) The Nouns (b) The Pronouns

(c) Numerals (d) The Verbs

2. Preparation of Juvenile Literature: Adaptation, simplification of excerpts from acknowledged classical literature.

3. (a) Preparation of an anthology of 150 verses

(b) Collection of Subhashitas

4. Preparation of exercises based on Shiksha (Phonology) by improving skills in effective reading a recitation.

5. Critical evaluation of a textbook in Sanskrit.


(i) Core Course A : English as a Second Language

(ii) Advanced Course B : English Language and Literature

Note: Course A : is meant for all students opting for English as a School subject.

Course B: is meant for only those among the above who have a Post-Graduate Degree in English Language and/or Literature. Methods of Teaching English as a Second Language

Course A


1. The present position of English in the Indian second curriculum in the context of:

(a) three-language formula.

(b) the English medium schools.

2. The principles of teaching English as a second language and their application in our context; Priority to developing language skills, aural - oral approach; situational teaching; structural grading, vocabulary control pattern practice; judicious use of the Mother tongue in the initial years; Use of grammatical terminology at later stages.

3. The objectives of teaching English in different school contexts at different stages:

(a) for a 5 or 6 year course.

(b) for an 8 or 10 year course.

(c) for a compulsory and an optional course at the higher secondary stage.

4. The methods and materials for developing the aural-oral skill at various stages: primary middle and high school; presentation of oral materials effectively; oral drills in pronunciation for developing correct sound, stress and intonation patterns; recitation; conversation; question-answer sequences; speech games and contests: Rhymes, verses and tongue-twisters; dramatization - improvised and otherwise.

5. Methods and materials for developing the reading skills: various stages of reading; recognition and analytic skills at the initial stages; look and say method, alphabetic method, and phonic method. Development of comprehension skills, various word attack methods, use of context clues; glossary and dictionary meaning: silent reading and reading aloud; detailed and non-detailed reading lessons; types of reading suitable for pleasure and purpose: extensive, and cursory. Proper use of textbooks, teacher's guides, Supplementary Readers & wider literary materials.

6. Methods and materials for developing the writing skills: Various stages of writing work. Mechanics of writing print script and hand writing exercises. Graded exercises in controlled, guided and free composition; transcription; short answers to questions from the Text; Workbook exercises in word, phrases and sentence writing; short paragraph writing: narrative and descriptive; Correcting pupil's written work; guiding pupils towards improvement.

7. Evaluation in English language achievement: need for an objective based plan; objective and essay type tests and their limitations; short answer type test and their uses; desirable methods of evaluating achievement in aural comprehension skills, oral skills, reading skill, and writing skills. Construction and use of appropriate test items and test papers for various stages.

8. Remedial work in English: diagnosis of difficulties and errors; remedial exercise in speech, reading and writing for various types of language failure: their application and evaluation.

9. Planning of Lessons in English.

Specifying objectives in detail on the basis of previous knowledge and ultimate goals, in terms of linguistic, thematic content and skills. Planning material and methods: effective presentation and adequate practice. Planning comprehension exercise for locating pertinent information and linguistic items; question-answer sequences. Summarising various evaluative exercises. Homework for reinforcement and enlargement, suitable types and their value in effecting improvement.

10. Planning the teaching of English at the school level: appropriate allotment of classes to qualified teachers; allocation of total time and suitable time-table for various skills, development activities, procurement and use of suitable materials for the school library and class libraries, arrangement and use of suitable audio-visual equipment, place of class text, sessional tests and annual examination. Professional growth: methods of sharing experiences, attending refresher courses and in-service programmes; self-study for professional growth.

Practical Work:

1. Teaching Practice: the specified number of lessons (20) in English at the middle school and high school stages, covering lessons in developing various language skills.

2. Oral Work : Exercise in (a) articulating standard English speech sounds (b) stress, rhythm and intonation; (c) phonetic script-coding: decoding; (d) modal reading of Prose, Poetry and Dialogue pieces, (c) narration, questioning, recitation and dialogue.

3. Reading Work: Developing familiarity with Children's literature, school texts, supplementary readers; dictionaries and encyclopedias; journals and special issues. Selecting suitable materials for pupils. Developing comprehension and speed in reading current literature in English.

4. Writing Work: Practice in using print script on the Black-board, flash cards and charts. Exercise in (a) writing sentences with controlled vocabulary and sentence structure (b) writing interesting contextualized passages, using specified language items (c) preparing language test, (d) note-taking; reporting; letter writing; dialogue writing; for various purposes (e) simplifying and adapting advanced texts for juniors.

5. School Activities : Preparing charts and models for use in English classes; maintaining Bulletin Boards, arranging exhibitions of children's work and material displays; organizing a play, a debate, a quiz-contest, a handwriting contest; learning songs and rhymes in English suitable for juniors. Organising Inter-class or Inter-school contests in English (language games; recitation and so on)


Course B

(a) Theory:

1. The importance of providing special language courses at the Higher Secondary Level; language courses for science, medicine, engineering, journalism, law and literature, and so on. specialized vocabulary and structure, different from literary texts.

2. Place and objective of Literature in a school course in English, with special reference to the higher secondary level.

3. Methods and materials for developing study skills in English literary - forms: essay, short one act-play, diary, letter, novel, long play and biography. Use of cultural context and dictionary and other relevant sources for better comprehension; discussion and self study.

4. Development of appreciation, skills of comprehension in relation to art of interpretation and the ways of developing the latter: development of judgement and evaluation of literary writing; relative importance of classics and popular literature in English.

5. Developing wider reading interests. Procuring and using suitable library materials. Arranging displays of new books, book lists, book reviews and journals suitable for the pupils. Organising other literary activities, such as discussion on various books read.

6. Developing writing skills. Exercise in current writing - grammar exercises; synthesis and transformation of sentences, paragraph writing, prcis writing, note taking and reporting adapting and exercises in creative writing; free composition writing, letter writing essay and dialogue writing; drama writing, diary entries and poems.

7. Developing advanced oral skills, exercises in reading with expression, literary texts of suitable poems, plays and stories. Speech training: education exercises; public speaking recitation; dramatic dialogue. Use of suitable audio-materials, recorded reading of literary text of various types, broadcasts and T.V. programmes on the above literary texts and authors. Use of language laboratories.

8. Planning lesson in Prose, Poetry, Drama, Novel, etc., at various levels. Different techniques for detailed and not-detailed study; preparatory work, actual study and following up in various useful ways. Poetry and Drama presented orally; place and use of discussion and interpretation methods rather than explanation; focusing on (a) emotion and imagery in poetry lessons; (b) Character and incident in Drama and Novels (c) Idea and argument in essays.

9. Evaluating achievements in English at the advanced level, using objective, short answer type and essay tests; criteria for making creative writing, methods of evaluating interest and extent in wider reading.

10. Planning teaching of English at the Higher Secondary level; Allocation of adequate total time; proper provision in the time-table for various skills. Procurement of suitable books and other material for the school and class libraries and facility for pupils to use Audio-Visual Aids (T.V. Radio Gramophone and Tape-Recorder, etc.) on their own. Planning session: annual and occasional tests and their weightage in the final assessment. Professional growth and leadership in the field.

B. Practical Work:

1. Practice Teaching: The specified number of lessons (20) in English at the Senior Secondary stage covering different types of lesson - Prose, Drama, Composition, Grammar, Detailed and Non-detailed reading lessons.

2. Oral Work: Preparing sound, stress, rhythm and intonation exercises for pupils; Reading poems, plays and stories with expression: practice in reading passages, phonetic texts, and practice in participation in group discussion, interviews and debates.

3. Reading Work: Reading and evaluating various types of juvenile literature - simplified, abridged and original. Selecting the most suitable reading material for pupils at various stages of learning English.

Reading literary works of modern writers: English, American, Indian and others and evaluating them for their usefulness at the Higher Secondary Level.

4. Writing Work: Essay on (a) creative writing (b) reporting (c) note-taking (d) reviewing literary and critical texts (e) adopting original texts to suit specific group, (f) editing articles and magazines (g) writing editorials (h) proof-reading.

5. School Activities: Planning and editing an English School magazine, arranging literary contests, debates and materials displays, at class, school or inter-school level : producing literary plays; directing chorus and individual recitations and songs: arranging literary debates, discussion and lectures. Organising an English Club or Association in the school. Arranging visits to libraries and language laboratory and English theatres and films for extending awareness and interest in English language, literature and life.


Course A

Scope of History. The purpose of teaching History in schools. The History syllabus. Methods and techniques of teaching History. Modern approach to the teaching of History. The teaching of current events. Study of local History - excursions. Textbooks and collateral reading in History. Relation of History with other subjects, Concept of Social Studies. Aids in the teaching of History. Internationalism in the teaching of History Examination of History.

Course B

Philosophy of History: Didactic, Speculative, Dialectical and Scientific Development of History as a field of study and its characteristics as a Social Science. Issues raised by History, Political-social, Economic and Cultural. History its meaning, aims and scope.

Making of History: How History is written. Definition of documents. Collection of source material - its authenticity and interpretation. History as imaginative reconstruction of the past : imperfections in History.

Indian Historiography: Brief introduction to Indian historiography - ancient, medieval, and modern. Problems of periodisation. Criteria of historical criticism.

Curriculum in History: Selection of material - Chronological Topical, Units, Lines of Development, Patch Method, Biographical, Concentric and Regressive Graduation of Material, Articulation of History syllabus at the Primary, Middle and Secondary level. Organisation of material Local, Regional, National and World History. Contemporary History.

Aids and Equipment in History: Blackboard, Maps, Charts, Models, Time Lines. Films and Film strips, History Room. History Library.

Reading Material in History: Text-books, their importance, appraisal and use in the class-room. Collateral and supplementary reading materials in History.

Chronology in History: Nature of Chronology: Location, Distance and Duration of historical events in the perspective of time. Devices to develop time sense: Time-Line, Graphs, Charts, Histomaps.

Teaching of Controversial Issues: Nature of historical controversies regarding facts. Controversies regarding interpretation of facts. Objectivity and value-judgment in history.

History and National Integration: Our-National heritage, unity in diversity. The role of history in promoting national integration.

History and Inter-national Understanding: Our human heritage. The role of history as promoter of internationalism.

Practical Work:

1. Preparation of Research Report: Study in depth in one area of content course in Indian and World History to demonstrate the relevant knowledge in the subject field and its value to the professional growth in the subject.

2. Organisation of History Circle: To include programmes such as reading of Papers on historical topics, group discussions, preparation of reports, organize excursions to place of historical interest.

3. Preparation of History Practical Note Book:

(a) Teaching units on content area - two each from Indian and World History.

(b) Twelve historical maps - six each from Indian and World History.

(c) Time-Line Charts four each from Indian and World History.

(e) A small project based on the study of a historical event in the locality, personalities, movements, buildings or institutions.


Course A

The nature and scope of Geography. Principles of construction of Geography syllabus for schools. Human Geography and its importance. Map work and hand work in Geography. Methods of teaching Geography at different stages. Equipment of Geography room and Geography museum. Practical work in Geography and its importance. Study of local Geography. Excursion. Correlation of Geography with other subjects. Concept of Social Studies. Teaching devices in relation to Geography. Textbooks and collateral reading in Geography. Evaluation in Geography.

Course B

1. Nature, scope and subject matter of Geography, emerging concepts and trends in Geography.

(i) Geography as a description of the earth.

(ii) Geography as a study of natural phenomena and their effect on man.

(iii) Geography as a study of Landscape-physical and cultural.

(iv) Geography as a study of real difference.

(v) Geography as a study of spatial relationships.

(vi) Geography as a unifying and integrating discipline.

2. A brief history of a teaching Geography in India and abroad.

3. Aims and objectives of teaching Geography in schools and colleges: place of geography in the school curriculum Geography as a mean:

(i) to understand, describe and interpret man's immediate and remote environment.

(ii) to develop a sense of genuine patriotism.

(ii) to develop broadmindedness, a sense of human brotherhood and international understanding.

(iv) to understand the inter-relationships among different subjects and disciplines.

(v) to develop the power of reasoning.

(vi) to develop geographic sense.

(vii) to educate the students to establish correlations between geographic knowledge and cultural background.

4. Correlation of Geography with other school subjects: A geographical perspective of social sciences and natural sciences.

5. A detailed study of various methods of teaching geography such as :

(i) Regional method

(ii) Comparative method

(iii) Observation method

(iv) Story telling method

(v) Project method

(vi) Laboratory method

(vii) Problem solving techniques

6. A study and analysis of the principles of framing curriculum in geography for the 10 + 2 pattern of Secondary education.

7. Local Geography: it's meaning significance and use as method of study.

8. Regional Geography: its meaning and significance, concept of regionalism.

9. Material aids in the teaching of geography.

10. Maps and Diagram - their value in teaching of geography, types of map, their use and techniques for preparation.

11. Organisation (a) Excursions

(b) Geography Club

(c) Geography Room

12. The Geography Teacher - qualities and outlook on training and education.

13. The Geography Textbooks - characteristics and criteria for preparation and selection for different levels.

14. Evaluation and measurement in the teaching of geography.

15. Observation and recording of the weather phenomenon.

16. Practical Work in Geography :

(a) each pupil teacher is required to conduct and prepare a brief report on anyone of the following:

(i) Socio-economic survey of a village as a geography

(ii) Land utilization survey of a village.

(iii) Traffic survey of a town.

(iv) Any other survey of a similar nature

(v) Geographic description of a place.

(b) performance of a classroom experiments such as :

(i) Time and longitude

(ii) Altitude of the sun at a place

(iii) Latitude of a place

(iv) Expansion and contraction of air

(v) Evaporation and condensation of water

(vi) Ocean currents

(vii) Cold wind replacing warm wind

(viii) To find out geographical north

(ix) To contour the school play ground.

(c) Participation in seminars and writing of reports. Each student is required to participate in at least five seminars on varied aspects of geography and submit reports.

(d) Presentation of geographic data through maps and diagrams. Students are required to prepare ten such exercises in the form of an album.

(e) Preparation of a pupil teacher Atlas. Each student is expected to collect / prepare and keep a record of typical maps and diagrams in the form of an Atlas.

(f) Preparation of geographical exercises, questionnaires for the school class.

(g) Preparation of objective texts in geography.

(h) Lesson Planning - each pupil teacher is required to give at least 20 lessons as under :

(i) Lessons on Physical Geography : 4

(ii) Lessons on Human Geography : 4

(iii) Lessons on Regional Geography : 4

(iv) Lessons on Historical Geography : 4

(v) Lessons on Practical Geography : 4

(Mathematical map drawing, observations, etc.)

Note: The Lectures/Supervisor concerned may change the division of lessons according to situation. Modern technique of teaching like Micro-teaching, simulation techniques, programmed learning etc. shall be adopted.

Specimen collection for the Geography museum.

17. Analysis of the following national issues in Geographical perspective:

(a) National Integration

(b) Socialistic Pattern of Society

(c) National Planning

(d) Geography Museum

(e) Geography Laboratory

A study of the underlying principles, characteristic, equipment and value.


Course A


1. Nature ad Scope of Civics and its relationship with other subject.

2. Evaluation of the Concept of Citizenship and its impact in the present social order.

3. Aims and Objectives of Teaching Civics and its place in the school curriculum.

4. Curriculum: A critical appraisal of the existing school syllabus in Civics.

5. Methods and Devices of Teaching Civics :

(a) Problem solving, project, observation, activity-methods, Discussion, Dramatization, Community Survey, Excursion, Mock activities.

(b) Lesson Planning - fulfilling the requirements of different methods.

6. Teaching Aids : Documentary : Visual : Auditory

7. Textbook and Supplementary Reading Material: Criteria of a good textbook, its appraisal, the use of current information to supplement the textbook.

8. Civic Teacher: Personality, Equipment, Outlook.

9. Civic Room : Needs and Equipment

10. Evaluation: Principles tools and evaluational approach to teaching.

Practical Work:

(a) Collection of data and information about one current problem as prescribed in school syllabus.

(b) Preparation of the teaching aid

(c) Organisation of Club

(d) Preparation of a Scrap-book

(f) Review of one Civics School Textbook.

(g) Organisation of one Visit to Parliament in Session.

(h) Preparation and administration of achievement test.

(i) Participation in Social Service.

Course B


1. Nature, Scope and Purpose of teaching Civics at the Higher Secondary level in a Democracy, having goals of socialism, secularism and national integration.

2. Emerging concepts and trends in the subject matter of Civics:

(i) The Parliamentary System

(ii) Multi-party political System

(iii) Enlightened electorate

(iv) General elections

(v) Planned socialism

(vi) Problems in a democracy

3. A study of political issues :

(i) International understanding

(ii) National Integration

4. Correlation of Political Science with other social and natural sciences.

5. The Civic Teacher - Knowledge, outlook and skills.

6. Teacher as an instrument of social change, Methods of approach:

(i) Current Events approach

(ii) Source Methods and Empirical Method

(iii) Observation method

(iv) Comparative method

(v) Use of community resources

(vi) Term Teaching of Micro-teaching

(vii) Mass media approach

7. Development of syllabus in Civics :

(j) Selection and Gradation of material for 10 + 2

(ii) Organization of material - different approaches

8. (a) Local, State and National Political structure in India.

(b) How to conduct Community Surveys.

9. Content Analysis. Textbooks and preparation of a use of books for supplementary reading. Use of Library and other instructional materials :

10. Evaluation in Civics:

(a) Preparation of Challenging assignments.

(b) Criteria for assessing written and practical work in civics.

(c) Preparation of objective type test.

A. Practical Work

Organisation of the following:

1. UNESCO Clubs

2. Opinion Forum

3. Excursions to Parliament, Local Self-Government bodies.

4. Surveys on the spot.

5. Term papers by each student on current issues.

6. News project of current International and National Interests through pictures, graphs, cuttings and reports.

7. Project to arouse the civic sense of the peer group.

8. Review of one book on Civics.

B. Lesson Planning: Each Student will plan 20 lessons:

1. Theory of Civics - 4 lessons

2. Constitution of India - 4 lessons

3. Democracy, Socialism and Secularism - 4 lessons

4. Society and Social Problems - 4 lessons

5. International understanding - 4 lessons

Approved by COC & FOE and sent to the University for AC's Approval.


Objectives of the Course:

To enable the pupil teachers to:

Unit I- Curriculum: Principles and Practices

a) Political Science and Social Science

Meaning , nature and scope ,

Philosophical and theoretical basis

b) Concept of Social Science and Social Studies, Political Science and Civics.

c) General Principles and Approaches for the construction and thematic organization of political science curriculum.

Unit II- Evolution and Development of Political Science

a) Evolution of the Political Science Curriculum upto contemporary times in the Indian context.

b) Construction of knowledge and process of knowledge generation in Political Science.

c) Different perspectives and issues in Political Science.

Unit III- Issues and Challenges in Teaching of Political Science

a) Teaching Political Science to the learners with special needs (challenged and gifted)

b) Critical pedagogy in Political Science

c) Pre-conceptions and misconceptions in Political Science

d) Correlation of Political Science with other social and natural sciences.

e) Political Science Teacher and Political Science Room

Unit IV- Pedagogy and Evaluation in Political Science

a) Purpose, Approaches and Methods of teaching-learning Political Science:

b) Theoretical basis and development of Unit and Lesson Plans

c) Material and Aids for Teaching Learning Processes

d) Assessment Modes: Self-assessment, Peer assessment, Group assessment, Learners' profile, Open book exams, Learners' portfolio

e) Application of ICT in a Political Science classroom

Unit V- Development of Teacher as a Reflective Practitioner and a Researcher

Suggested Practicum

(a) Peer interaction (Peer Educators) and group work on selected areas taken from school syllabus

(b) Analysis of Curriculum Policies/Documents and existing school curriculum.

(c) Group Presentation for Critical appraisal of existing Political Science (Civics) curriculum and text books at school level

(d) Development and organization of Political Science Society.

(e) Development of unit and lesson plan; criticism/video lesson.

(f) Construction and Development of Teaching-learning material

(g) Designing of question paper, analysis and report

Some Contemporary Issues

Evolution of Political Science as a discipline.

Political Science (Civics) and scope of scientific enquiry.

Concept of democratic class room.

Education for Citizenship.

Political science in the global context.

Human rights/ Child rights/ Women's rights.

Peace and conflict resolution

Educational technology and Political Science (Civics)

Gender issues in Civics.

Suggested Reading List


Level - A

Objectives of the Course

To develop among future Biology Teachers:

a theoretical understanding of the nature and structure of Science in general and biology as a discipline in particular;

a conceptual understanding related to the pedagogy of Biological Sciences;

competencies, skills and abilities needed to transact, critically analyze and evaluate the Biology curriculum;

specific laboratory skills needed to link theory with practical work.

Unit 1 : Aims and Objectives of Teaching Biology

The nature of science, scientific inquiry, the method of science, nature of biology as a discipline.

The interface between science, technology and society in relation to biology.

Place of biology at upper primary and secondary levels.

General aims of teaching biology at upper primary and secondary levels.

Effecting a shift from a descriptive to an analytical, holistic and systemic approach.

Unit 2: Biology and the Learner

Children's conceptualization of scientific phenomena - with a focus on Biology (at the upper primary and secondary level with linkages to learning at the primary level); misconceptions and alternative frameworks.

Role of language, its contribution towards expression, articulation and the understanding of biology.

Unit 3: The Curriculum

The basis of curriculum construction.

Integrated approach to science (e.g. the role of biology in teaching of Integrated Science, EVS, Health Education etc.)

Science Education in National Curriculum

A critical analysis of the existing Biology curriculum at upper primary and secondary levels.

Unit 4: Class-room Processes

Teaching-learning processes such as inquiry, problem-solving, project interactive within a constructivist framework.

Developing unit and lesson plans using combination of various processes.

Use of resources for teaching biology including teaching aids; improvisation and multimedia resources.

Organization of biology activities, experiments and laboratory work with a critique of current practices.

Learning beyond the classroom - science corner, clubs, fairs, excursions, appreciation of community resources etc.

Unit 5: Assessment

Nature of learning and assessment, analysis and critique of the present pattern of examinations.

Design and analysis of class tasks and home tasks.

Assessment through creative expression - drawing, posters, drama, poetry etc.

Continuous assessment of skills, observation measurement, classification, representation of data, inference, manipulations of apparatus etc.

Continuous assessment - developing learner profiles and portfolios.

Preparation and analysis of achievement tests for periodic assessment.

Unit 6: Professional development of the science teacher

Need for professional development.

Professional development at the individual organizational and governmental level - action research and internship by teachers in collaboration with research and other institutions.

Practical Work

1. Laboratory techniques such as collecting, culturing, staining, maceration, temporary & permanent mounting of materials.

2. Museum techniques: Preservation, preparation and maintenance of plant, animal and other specimens.

3. Setting up and maintenance of Aquarium & Terrarium.

4. Use and maintenance of basic equipment in the Biology laboratory.

5. Practicing at least ten experiments to be demonstrated / conducted in secondary class.

6. Using keys for identification of various plants and animals species.

7. Study of Morphology, Anatomy and Physiology of relevant materials at secondary level.


Level - B

Objective of the Course

To enable a pupil teacher to:

Understand the nature of Biology as a discipline and the process of knowledge construction in a sociological and historical perspective.

Acquire the ability to analyze and transact the Biology curriculum through a wide repertoire of teaching learning approaches.

Organize and conduct laboratory work and to devise innovative experiments and projects.

Understand the forward linkages through an exposure to possible course / vocations options after school.

Acquire an understanding of and to contribute towards curriculum development as a reflective practitioner.

Unit 1: Nature and significance of Biology

Nature of science - awareness of contributions of Popper, Kuhn and Lovlock.

A historical perspective of the evolution of science with emphasis on biology.

Understanding contemporary issues in relation to biology (e.g. environment, gender etc.) in a developmental context.

The changing character of biology in school curriculum.

Place of Biology in senior secondary classes.

Role of experiment in science with particular reference to biology.

Unit 2 : Learning- teaching in Biology

Objectives of teaching biological sciences at senior secondary level.

Unit and Lesson Planning.

Teaching-learning approaches at senior secondary level; individualizing instruction - developing and using programmed instructional units in biology, computer assisted instructions, internet as a resource; investigatory projects - their importance, role of the teacher in evolving a programme for projects and guiding students.

A critical analysis of the existing biology curriculum at senior secondary level.

New trends in teaching of biology at national and international levels, learning to teach a selected portion of course with innovative techniques.

Planning for differentiation in biology lessons, remedial, enrichment and acceleration Programmes.

Unit 3: The Senior Biology Teacher

The senior biology teacher and the laboratory.

Professional competencies and abilities of a senior biology teacher - including organizing seminars, workshops, providing resource support.

One biology laboratory - its use and maintenance as a resource of lab assistants.

Unit 4: Assessment

Evaluation at the senior secondary level in biology, preparation of an achievement test and writing a report.

Practical Work

1. Tools and techniques in Cell physiology studies.

2. Carrying out on investigatory project and submitting its report.

3. Dissection of Rat/Frog to demonstrate the following systems - circulatory, digestive endocrine, excretory and reproductive systems.

4. Mounting of live sperms to show movements (Rail/Frog).

5. Practicing Bio-technical skills:

a) Preparation of temporary and permanent slides for chromosomal studies to study various stages of Mitosis and Meiosis; (b) Chromatography techniques; (c) Staining of gram positive & gram negative bacteria; (d) Use and maintenance of centrifuge, water bath, incubator Autoclaver etc.; (e) Culturinge techniques; (f) Aseptic techniques.

6. Field Work: Study of a community resource for its utility in teaching of Biology & preparation of the report.

Suggested Readings


School Science, NCERT, New Delhi.

The American Biology Teacher

National Association of Biology Teachers


Level A

Objective of the Course

To enable a pupil teacher to:

Develop an understanding of the nature and structure of science and its interface with society (with special reference to Physics)

Acquire a conceptual understanding of the process of learning science and assessment of the learners

Develop competencies and skills to transact, critically analyze and appraise the curriculum

Become a reflective practitioner, capable of translating theoretical perspectives into pedagogical practices through processes of innovative action

Unit I : Aims and Objectives of Teaching Physics

The nature of physics: a focus on the major turning points.

Science-Technology-Society interface and the role of Physics

Aims of teaching physics at the upper-primary and secondary level (and its linkages with the primary level)

Objectives of teaching physics with special reference to the development of curiosity, critical thinking and process skills (experimenting, observing, classifying, Inferring, hypothesizing, predicting etc.)

Development of scientific temper, public understanding of science; ethics of science; science education in the context of a developing country.

Unit II : Focus on the Learner

Children's conceptualization of scientific phenomena - with a focus on Physics (at the upper primary and secondary level with linkages to learning at primary level); Misconceptions and 'alternative frameworks' in physics.

Understanding children's fear of science and mathematics; demystifying physics.

The socio-cultural context; constructivism; conceptual schemas; concept maps.

Role of language: its contribution towards expression, articulation and the understanding of physics.

Practicum (Unit I - II) : Project / Assignment based on School Experience

Unit III : The Science Curriculum

An integrated approach to science curriculum.

Science in the National Curriculum; critical review of science curricula, such as, the UNESCO Commission Report, NCERT, Hoshangabad and other state curricula.

Criteria for the analysis of the physics content in science textbooks (including issues related to gender, the socio-cultural context, etc.)

Analysis of existing science syllabi and textbooks


Teaching-learning processes

Demonstration, discussion, investigative projects, individually group work, peer learning, observation-based survey, plans, lesson plans using combinations of various processes.

Computer aided instruction in Physics, multi-media packages

Physics activities, experiments and laboratory work with a critique of.

with special needs in an inclusive physics class experiences

Science fair, science corners, science clubs, excursion and related.

Discussion of lessons for the school experience programme. Work management of laboratory, activities and project work. Remedial or enrichment programmes.

Learning and assessment; analysis and critique of the present pattern of ____________ ?

Analysis of class tasks and home tasks.

Rough creative expression - drawing, posters, drama, poetry, etc. assessment of skills: observation measurement, classification, of data, inference, manipulation of apparatus etc.

Assessment - developing learner profiles and portfolios; participatory and analysis of achievement tests for periodic assessment.

Preparation of a detailed Assessment Report of Learners' and periodic assessment.

Development of the science teacher

Professional development

Development at the individual, organizational and governmental level; action research and internship by teachers in collaboration with research voluntary organizations, etc. level - A).

Developing unit and lesson plans in physics using combinations of teaching-learning processes.

Assessment of laboratory work, project work, etc. (with linkages to processes discussed at level - A)

Beyond school: exposure to possible collaborative projects with academic/ industrial/research organizations (through suitable mentorship)

Practicum: Planning Lessons for the Senior Secondary Level with appropriate assessment procedures.

Preparation of a detailed assessment report

Unit IV: Organiation of the Physics Laboratory

Layout and design of the physics laboratory

Storage of apparatus

Maintenance of laboratory records

Maintenance arrangements for the conduct of experiments

Practicum: Laboratory work, activities, and project work

Unit V : The Curriculum

Major developments and current trends in physics education - an international perspective.

Critical review of physics curricula / programmes - PSSC, Nuffield physics programme, Harvard project physics, Project 2061, NCERT and others.

Criteria for the analysis of physics textbooks/

Practicum: Critical analysis of national and international physics curricula programmes.


Level - B

Objective of the Course

To enable a pupil teacher to:

understanding the nature of physics as a discipline and the process of knowledge construction in a sociological and historical perspective

acquire the ability to analyze and transact the physics curriculum through a wide repertoire of teaching learning approaches

organize and conduct laboratory work and to devise innovative experiments and projects

understand the forward linkages through an exposure to possible course/vocations options after school

acquire an understanding of and to contribute towards curriculum development as a reflective practitioner

Unit I: Nature of Physics

The nature of science - awareness of the contributions of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos

A historical perspective: the development of physics as a discipline : contrast between classical and quantum mechanical views.

Science - Technology - Society (STS) education; dealing with controversial issues in physics

Factors effecting technology choices in a society (economic, political and cultural influences.)

Role of experiment in science with particular reference to physics.

Role and limitations of language in physics.

Unit II: Physics at the Senior Secondary Level

The nature of physics in the senior secondary school curriculum.

Aims and objectives of teaching physics at the senior secondary level - linkages with the upper primary and secondary levels.

Interface of physics with mathematics

Forward linkages: an exposure to possible course options after school

Practicum: project based on School Experience; Case study of forward linkages

Unit III: Classroom processes in Physics

Classroom processes with reference to the socio-cultural and developmental context of the learner.

A repertoire of teaching learning processes

Problem solving, experimentation, investigatory projects, individually paced programmes, guided independent study, peer learning, seminar presentation, internship, action research (with linkages to those discussed at _________________ ?

Practicum : Critical analysis of existing science syllabi and textbooks

Unit IV : Classroom Processes

A repertoire of teaching-learning processes

Experimentation, demonstration, discussion, investigative projects, individually paced programmes, group work, peer learning, observation-based survey.

Developing unit plans, lesson plans using combinations of various processes.

Instructional aids, computer aided instruction in Physics, multi-media packages, websites, etc.

Organisation of physics activities, experiments and laboratory work with a critique of the current practices.

Helping children with special needs in an inclusive physics class.

Planning of extended experiences

Science quiz, science fair, science corners, science club, excursions and related SUPW activities.


Planning and discussion of lessons for the school experience programme.

Laboratory work - management of laboratory, activities and project work.

Developing remedial or enrichment programmes.

Unit V: Assessment

Practicum: Preparation of a detailed Assessment Report of Learners' continuous and periodic assessment.

Unit VI: Professional Development of the Science Teacher

References: Physics Level - A; Physics Level - B.


Level - A

Objective of the Course

To enable a pupil teacher to:

Unit I : Aims and Objectives of Teaching Chemistry

Unit II: Focus on the Learner

Practicum: Social Experience based Project/Assignment

Unit III: The Science Curriculum

Practicum: Critical Analysis of existing Science Syllabus and Textbook

Unit IV: Classroom Processes

Experimentation, demonstration, discussion, projects, individually paced programmes, group work, and peer learning


Unit V: Assessment

Practicum: Preparation of a detailed Assessment Report of Learner's Continuous and Periodic Assessment

Unit VI: Professional Development of the Science Teacher


Level - B

Objectives of the Course

To enable a pupil teacher to:

Unit I : Nature of Chemistry

Unit II : Chemistry at the Senior Secondary Level

Practicum : Project based on School Experience; Case Study of Forward Linkages

Unit III: Classroom processes in Chemistry

Problem solving, experimentation, investigatory projects, individually paced programmes, guided independent study, peer learning, seminar presentation, internship, action research (with linkages to those discussed at level A).

Practicum: Planning for the Senior Secondary level with appropriate assessment Procedures. Preparation of a detailed assessment report.

Unit IV : Organization of the Chemistry Laboratory

Practicum: Laboratory work, Activities, and Project Work

Unit V: The Curriculum

Practicum: Critical Analysis of National and International Chemistry Curricula Programmes



Course A

The purpose and value of studying Mathematics in schools. Mathematics syllabus. Methods of teaching Mathematics. Oral and Practical work. Example and exercises: their value and grading, apparatus and other aids to teaching of the subject. Home work. Evaluation in mathematics.

Course B

1. (i) Understanding of the nature of Mathematics: specially the role of axioms, hypothesis, postulates and operations.

(ii) Some familiarity with the basic tenets of the following schools of thought:

(a) Logistics and

(b) Formalists

2. The scope of Mathematics and its relation with other disciplines.

3. History of Mathematics with a view to humanizing the areas of knowledge included in the school mathematics syllabus.

4. Aims of teaching of following areas of Mathematics

(i) Co-ordinate Geometry

(ii) Calculus

(iii) Elementary statistics

(iv) Graphs

(v) Complex Numbers

(vi) Algebra of Sets

5. Improving and enriching the understanding of fundamental concepts of the students pertaining to the area of mathematical knowledge included in syllabus.

6. Specification of objectives in terms of learning behavior and their evaluation.

7. Critical study of syllabus of different stages in accordance with the theoretical principles of curriculum construction.

8. Designing of some experimental projects in Mathematics

9. Popularizing Mathematics


Unit I: Nature of Science and Construction of Knowledge

Unit II: Aims of Teaching of Science

Unit III : Science Technology and Society

Unit IV : Focus on the Learner

Practicum (Unit II - IV): Project/Assignment based on School Experience.

Unit V: The Science Curriculum

Practicum: Critical analysis of existing science syllabi and textbooks.

Unit VI: Classroom Processes

Experimentation, demonstration, discussion, problem solving, investigate projects, individually paced programmes, group work, peer learning, observation-based survey.


Unit VII Assessment


Preparation of a detailed Assessment Report of Learners' continuous and periodic assessment

Unit VIII Professional development of the Science Teacher

Suggested Reading List


Course A

The meaning and scope of Economics. Purposes of teaching Economics in Schools. The syllabus in Economics. The presentative of Economics at different stages in schools. Aids in the teaching of Economics. Class-room techniques of teaching Economics. Textbook in economics. Objective tests in Economics.

Course B

1. (a) Need for economics literacy: (Objectives as enumerated 9 of them, by the Central Board of Secondary Education).

(b) Relations of Economics with Commerce and other subjects.

2. Social approach to reality. Description of the Economic aspect.

3. Concept formation the role of illustration as directed from definition.

4. Local studies approach to teaching Economics:

Work Book Method

Telling Method

Unit Method

Source Method (Based on official publications).

Problem Method.

Activity and Survey Method.

5. Economic Problems and Economic Policies for developing societies.

6. Criticism of the syllabus: Objectives of acquiring knowledge, understanding, appreciation, application, theorization, realization, attitude formation, participation urge, acquisition of skills for interpretation and presentation.

7. Evaluation

8. Practical work such as a case study, a project.


Course A

A systematic study of the courses. Their correlation with other subjects in the school curriculum, technique of constructing aims and objectives based on the physical economic and social needs and the abilities and desires of the communities in which they live. Selection, evaluation, organization and construction of subject matter, syllabi, Instruction units, projects units and daily lesson plans. The study of principles and practices of teaching and learning the subject matter taught. Methods of how to conduct effectively field trips, group projects and discussion of various kinds for such courses. The techniques of evaluating both class achievement and teaching methods used. Aids in teaching the subject.


Course A


1. Concept of Home Science, meaning and components.

2. Scope of Home Science in School curriculum.

3. Objectives of teaching Home Science in Schools.

4. General principles of teaching.

5. Methods of teaching Home Science.

Discussion, Demonstration, Laboratory work project. Problem solving, Field trip, Micro-teaching.

6. Aids in teaching Home Science - audio and visual.

7. Lesson plans for teaching Home Science.

8. Principles of curriculum planning.

9. Development of Home Science syllabus.

10. Evaluation devices for Home Science.

11. Space and Equipment for Home Science.

12. Correlation of Home Science with other school subjects.

13. Socially Useful Productive Work related to Home Science.

Practical Work:

1. Preparing notes of lessons and teaching.

2. Critical review of a Radio and T. V. lesson.

3. Preparing teaching aids - Charts, graphs, specimens, samples short answer tests, score cards checklist.

4. Development of evaluation devices: Essay type.

5. Development and administration of short answer test papers and submission of Report.

6. Plan of space and equipment for Home Science Department in Schools.

7. Critical study of Home Science syllabus and textbooks.

Course B


1. Nature and scope of Home Science in Higher Secondary School.

2. Objectives of teaching Home Science in Higher Secondary classes.

3. Basic principles of teaching Home Science: Group discussion; seminars, observations, experimental work, market study, reports and records.

4. Use of Community resources in teaching Home Science.

5. Use of mass media in teaching Home Science.

6. Study of local, national and international programmes relating to Health, Nutrition, Child Care, Housing, Consumer problems.

7. Quality control and consumer information purpose and measures.

8. Non-formal education; relation to Home Science.

Practical Work:

1. Lesson planning and teaching.

2. Development of Radio and T.V. Lessons in Home Science.

3. Experimental work in foods, clothing, textiles, detergents and household gadgets.

4. Market survey and reports.

5. Projects relating to any one area of Home Science.

6. Visits to Health Centre, Child Welfare Centre and Community Service Centre.

7. Study of School lunch programmes.

8. Development of unit in Home Science for adult/ out of school youth, based on needs and interests.


Course A

The place of commercial education. Objectives of teaching Commerce. The contents of the course and its division, Coordination of the different divisions. Equipment and materials for effective instruction and classroom arrangements. Techniques of teaching the different subjects in the course. Practical work in connection with the different subjects including visits to offices, factories, selection of textbooks, reference books, reports, trade journals and statistical publications. Texts of aptitude and performance.

Course B


1. Place of Commerce in the School Curriculum.

2. Objectives of teaching Commerce at the Senior Secondary Stage. Specific objectives, Different domains of objectives, objective-writing in behavioural terms.

3. Development of curriculum in Commerce. A critical appraisal of present syllabus.

4. Methods and techniques of teaching commerce, with special reference to :

(a) Lecture Method

(b) Question and Answer Method

(c) Discussion Method

(d) Project Method, and

(e) Problem solving method

5. Materials Aids for the Teaching of Commerce.

6. Extra-mural and Intra-mural activities in Commerce.

7. Text-books and Instructional Materials in Commerce - Selection of textbooks, reference books, reports, trades journals and Statistical; Publications; Workbooks.

8. Evaluation in Commerce-Different types of Tests.

9. Commerce-based Socially Useful Productive Works.

Practical Work

Lesson Planning

1. Each pupil teacher is required to give at least 20 lessons, incorporating the following elements in their lesson plan.

(a) Behavioural Objectives

(b) Description of the use of the relevant method/methods to be used.

(c) Teaching Aids; and

(d) Objective based assignment.

2. Appraisal of a textbook in Commerce.

3. Preparation and administration of an achievement test in Commerce.

4. Making a scrap-book based on the contents of the syllabus of Commerce and other allied areas.

5. Debate on a Commerce based subject.

6. Writing report on one of the following :

(a) A visit planned and organized by the student.

(b) Import/Export procedure of a business unit.

(c) Organisation and working of a business unit in the Public Sector.

7. Preparation of teaching aids

8. Appraisal of the syllabus of Commerce framed by C.B.S.E for Delhi Schools.

Approved by COC & FOE and sent to the University for AC's Approval.



To develop an understanding of pedagogical processes and critical issues related to the teaching-learning of Commerce.

To enable students appreciate the relevance of studying Commerce at senior secondary level.

To help evolve a national and international perspective through comparative analysis of curricula.

To enable the students to become effective teachers of Commerce.

To prepare the students for leadership roles in schools and other educational institutions.

To orient them to research and exploration in the field of teaching of Commerce.

I) Commerce Education: Issues and Concerns

Nature of Commerce and its evolution as an area of study.

Generation of knowledge in Commerce: Understanding the role of Research, Role of Business institutions, Legal dimensions, Trade practices and Industry.

Relationship of Commerce with other disciplines such as History, Geography, Law, Psychology, Sociology and Economics.

Commerce Education in everyday life.

Commerce Curriculum: Issues and Concerns

Place of Commerce in school curriculum.

Structure of Commerce curriculum.

Organization of content in Commerce.

Policy perspectives.

Analyses of various curricula: (IB, K-12, CBSE, ICSE, NOS etc.) focusing on their structure and organization of content.

II) Pedagogy

Aims, objectives of teaching Commerce.