1.1 Philosophical Perspective on Education


(a)     Philosophy of Education: Its Nature and Distinctive Features, Method and Content.

(b)     Educational Theory: Various Contentions, Reflection on the View points held by Plato, Kant, Dewey, Hirst, Peters and Freire.


2.    Evolution of Educational thought : The Philosophico-Religious Traditions:-


(a)     Ancient Indian - Vedantic, Buddhist, Islamic.

(b)     Medieval/Chinese.


3.    Recent Philosophical Approaches to Education :


(a)     Positivist.

(b)     Existential Phenomenological.

(c)     Analytical (Philosophical and Linguistic).


4.    Assumptions and Operations :


(a)     Ontological Alternatives.

(b)     Epistemological (Methodological) Options.


5.    Science : Its Impact on Education (Critique of Scientific Method in the Context of Education).


6.    Praxis : I


(a)    Education and Individual: Philosophic Conceptions of Human Personality with Reference to (i) Ancient, and (ii) Recent Indian Experiences (Tagore, Gandhi, Sri Aurobindo and J. Krishnamurti).


(b)    Education and Society : The New Socio- Economic and Political Order.


7.    Praxis : II


(a)     The Realm of Values.

(b)     Beyond Formal Institutions.


1.2     Sociological Perspective on Education


Education and Society :


1.     Education and Society under Colonisation - In a Comparative Context

2.     Education and Inequality - Caste, Class, Gender.

3.     Education, Social Change and Modernisation : - Culture, Values, Institutions, Mobility.

4.     The Political Economy of Education; Power and Dominance.


Sociology of the School :


5.     Socialization into a Moral Civilisation.

6.     The School as an Instrument of the State.

7.     The School as an Agent of Cultural Reproduction and Resistance. Sociology of Teaching and Curriculum :

8.     Teacher Expectation and Performance.

9.     Curriculum : Organization and Representation.

10.    Evaluation and the Examination System.






2.1     Psychology of Personality and Adjustment


Nature, scope and methods of Educational Psychology : Experimental, Clinical and Differential. Theories of human nature. Personality: its nature and theories with special reference to developmental and factor-analytical approaches. Role of heredity and environment in the development of Personality. Assessment of Personality: subjective, objective and projective methods. Indian adolescent: his/her problems and their management. Delinquency: theories and remedial steps. A brief account of Psychoanalysis and its allied schools. Psychology of Adjustment : integrative and disintegrative adjustment; causes of disintegration and their control.


2.2     Psychology of Learning and Intelligence


1.    Learning:


(a)     Nature

(b)     Approaches to learning : Behaviouristic, Cognitive, Humanistic and Neuropsychological.


2.    (a)     Outline of Pavlov's, Skinner's, Gestalt and Hebb's theories of learning.

       (b)     Detailed study of :


(i)      The Social Cognitive Theory with special reference to Bandura, Dollard and Miller.

(ii)     The Information Processing Theory with special reference to Norman, Ausubel and Bruner.


3.    (a)    Intelligence : Nature and Evaluation of the Concept. (b) Theories of Intelligence :


(i)     Psychometric theories with special reference to the Guilford SOI Model.

(ii)    The Information Processing Approach with special reference to Sternberg's Triarchic Theory.

(iii)   Piaget's Genetic Epistemological Approach to Cognitive Development.

(iv)   Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory.


(c)    The role of environment-related factors in the development of intelligence.

(d)    Measurement of Intelligence. (e) Implications of Intelligence Testing.





3.1 Techniques of Research


1.    Nature of knowledge and scientific inquiry : Role of assumptions, paradigms and approaches in research, positivist and non-positivist paradigms. Inter disciplinarity in Educational Research, Nature, Level and Scope of Educational Research.

2.    Major Orientations in Educational Research: Philosophical, Sociological and Psychological.

3.    Educational Research - methods and types - Experimental, Survey, Evaluative, Historical, Developmental, Case Study, Documentary, Action Research.

4.    Research Data : Sources and Collection.

(a)  Sources of educational data : Individual, Institutions, Documents, Census, Journals, Books, Schools of thought etc.

(b)  Sampling techniques : concept, need, probability and non-probability samples, sampling errors and their control.

(c)  Techniques and Tools of data collection : observation, interview, questionnaire, scale, inventory, checklist, content analysis.

5.    Formulating Research Proposals : Identification of a research problem; review of related research and literature; Tuckman's Research spectrum; formulation of hypotheses; research design and procedure; data analysis techniques; time scheduling; chapterisation.

6.    Writing, evaluating and reviewing research reports and papers. Validity of research findings.



(a)     Reviewing a research paper, an M.Ed./M. Phil dissertation and a chapter from a research textbook.

(b)     Formulating a research proposal as part of the course requirements.

(c)     Selecting and/or developing a need-based research tool or schedule for a technique.

(d)     Writing and presenting assignments and papers and participation in discussion.

3.2   Elementary Statistical Methods for Educational Research

Tabulation and graphical representation of data; Measures of Central Tendency and Variability; Percentiles and Percentile Ranks. Normal probability curve- Its important properties and simple applications.


Correlation and regression : product moment and rank difference co-efficient of correlation, regression equations.


Inferential statistics : sampling distributions, hypotheses testing, interval estimation.


Inference about population means: inference about co-efficient of correlation of a large sample and a small sample.


Frequency comparison : Chi-square.





4.5 A.I : Educational Organisation and Administration


Objectives, scope and functions of educational administration. Educational administration and other types of administration. Factors determining the character of administration: Central, Provincial and Local authorities connected with educational administration. Educational finance, Educational clauses in the Constitution of India. Organisation and function of the Ministry of Education, Govt. of India.


The State Ministry of Education and the Department of Education, with special reference to Delhi.


Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and University Grants Commission (UGC).


Trends and issues in educational administration. Comparative practices of educational administration in U.K., USA and USSR. Uses of educational research in educational administration.

4.5 A.2 : Educational Supervision

Nature and scope of educational supervision. Principles governing the processes of supervision. Administration and organisation of supervision. Planning of supervisory programmes. Techniques of supervision. Evaluation of the effectiveness of supervision. Problems and issues in educational supervision.


Basic principles of curriculum construction. Relation between teaching and supervision. Importance of research in supervision. Organisation and practices of supervision and inspection in Delhi Schools.


PAPER IV and V (B)



4.5 B.1 : Concepts of Adjustment and Mental Health.


1.     Historical evolution of concepts of mental health from normality to self actualisation.

2.     Mental Health : ongoing process of growth and development; a completed product.

3.     Concept of normality : Statistical and ideal. Concept of adjustment with reference to group and self.

4.     Criteria of a healthy personality.

5.     Factors affecting mental health : home, school and societal.

6.     (i)     Common behavioural problems: truancy, gender-related problems, aggression, delinquency and drug-addiction, etc.

       (ii)     Guidance and counselling techniques : group, individual.

7.     The role of the school in promoting mental health.

8.     Three aspects of the mental health programme : prevention, maintenance and promotion.


4.5 B.2 : Theories and Therapies of Mental Health


1.     Psychoanalytic : Freud, Jung, Fromme, Kakar

2.     Behaviouristic : Skinner, Wolpe, Dollard and Miller

3.    Self theories : Rogers

4.    Humanistic-Existential : Maslow, Rollo May

5.    Yoga and Meditation : related theories

6.    Transactional Analysis : Berne

7.    Other significant therapies :


(i)    play therapy

(ii)   group therapy

(iii)  family therapy

(iv)  t-groups and sensitivity training programmes.





4.5 C.1 : Foundations of Experimental Education


1. Experimental Education : Concept, need and scope.

2. Experimental Method : Nature, steps, designs (Pre-experimental, True Experimental, Factorial, Quasi-experimental, Latin Square designs only).

3. Sampling Designs.

4. Statistical techniques :

    - ANOVA

One-way and two-way

    - ANCOVA

One-way only

- Factor Analysis (upto Ist residual matrix on centroid method only)

- Non-parametric test : (the following tests only)

  Run test, Kolmogrov-Smirnov test, Sign test, Mann-Whitney U-test, ANOVA.


Practical Work :


Interpretation of computer output on Factor Analysis and ANOVA


4.5 C.2 : Psychometry


1. Measurement and Evaluation: Meaning, Functions and Scales of Measurement.

2. Types of test : (i) Psychological tests (Theoretical description of tests in different domains)

3. Achievement Tests. (Norm and Criterion Referenced)

4. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (with special reference to Bloom’s and NCERT).

5. Reliability - Concept, types and different procedures.

6. Validity - Concept, types and procedures.

7. Norms - Concept, types (age, grade, percentile, sigma scores, T-scores).

8. Construction and standardisation of a test (with special reference to an achievement test).

9. Statistical techniques :

Correlation : Concept and methods.

Bi-serial, Point bi-serial, Tetrachoric, Phi coefficient, Correlation ratio, tau, partial and multiple.

Regression: Concept and methods: least squares, Bi-variate and Multi-variate (upto 3) regression equation.

Practical Work:

1.   Developing a test.

2.   Interpretation of computer output pertaining to multiple regression equations.





4.5 D.1 : Theoretical Formulation and Organisational Framework

1.   Teacher Education: Nature, scope and significance, Teacher Education and Social Intervention.

2.   Teacher Profile: Status, Role-ascribed and achieved, Functions.

3.   Administrative and Organisational Structure of Teacher Education at various levels: Elementary, Secondary, Senior Secondary and College.

4.   Curriculum for Teacher Education : theoretical formulations and transactions.

5.   Apex agencies for teacher educators, NCTE, NCERT, NIEPA, IASE, CTE, DIETs - their specific roles and functions.

6.   Traditional and Extended Programmes : Pre-service and In-service Education.

7.   Post-Independence Development of Teacher Education in India.


4.5 D.2 : Teacher Education: Contextual Issues and Programmes

1.   Teacher Education: The Socio-philosophical perspectives. Teacher Education : Cognitive complexities, Inter-disciplinarity.

2.   Professionalisation of Teacher Education: The liberal and the technical aspects in Teacher Education. Teacher and Work ethics.

3.   Student Teacher: Programmes and Problems; Models and Patterns: Their relative features and merits. Problems of placement and supervision.

4.   Evaluation of student-teacher: various practices: Internal Assessment, Self-directed programmes and activities.

5.   Accreditation of Teacher Education Institutions, Admission Policies.

6.   New Development in Teacher Education: Study in futuristics; Innovations, experiments and researches in Teacher Education.

7.   Teacher Education in the U.K., the U.S.A., Russia and Japan. Their programmatic relevance to the Indian scenario.





4.5 E.1 : Educational Guidance


Meaning of guidance: a process of orientation and developmental guidance in relation to individual growth. Basic assumptions of guidance. Guidance needs in Indian Schools at different school levels of different categories of pupils. Procedures in guidance, collecting and recording the information about individuals. Collecting information of educational and vocational opportunities using the above for counselling, placement, follow-up and research activities. The study of the 'whole' child : testing techniques and non-testing techniques. Organisation of guidance services; Essentials of a guidance programme, guidance set-up in small and big schools and in a school system. Guidance methods : group techniques and case work. Role of different guidance personnel, community resources for school guidance services. Evaluation of guidance.


4.5 E.2 : Vocational Guidance


Vocational guidance, vocational development and vocational maturity. Need for vocational guidance in Indian schools. Need and importance of occupational information and information about employment market trends and opportunities.


Classification and filing of occupations and the world of work. Essential facts about jobs, methods of securing information and their uses. Preparation of job profile and its uses. Educational and vocational counselling and its purpose. Counselling situations, levels of counselling and counselling relationships, counselling interview.







4.5 F.1 : Principles and Methods of Comparative Education



Definition, aim, scope and importance of Comparative Education.


Growth and development of the science of Comparative Education.


Approaches to the study of Comparative Education: Historical, Philosophical, Statistical and global/cross-cultural.


New research trends, innovations and problems in Comparative Education.


 4.5 F.2: Comparative Study of Specific Educational Themes and Systems in Selected Countries.



A comparative survey of major educational innovations and changes in selected countries*, illustrating general similarities and differences, with emphasis on Indian educational perspectives and problems in the context of the emerging global economy.


Organisation and problems of Elementary, Secondary and University education with reference to U.K. and U.S.A.


Organisation and problems of Teacher Education, Technical Education and Vocational Education with reference to China & Japan.


Philosophy, organisational pattern and type of adult and social education, with special emphasis on the developing countries in relation to their specific cultural milieu.


Demographic planning with special emphasis on China


*     Selected countries within the specified Units will include : India, Bangladesh, China, Japan, U.K. and U.S.A.






4.5 G.1: History and Progress of Education in India till 1854

1.   A brief study of the main characteristics of the Vedic, Brahamanic, Buddhist and Islamic systems of education with reference to their aims, features, curricula, methods, practices and agencies of education.

2.   Missionaries and their contribution to education.

3.   Education under the East India Company – upto 1853, with special reference to the motives of the Company.

4.   Development of Education from 1854 to the end of the 19th Century, with reference to important landmarks in education, bringing out the political designs of the British rulers; and the impact of education on political, social, economic and the cultural life of the people and vice-versa.

5.   The Indigenous system of education during the 19th Century.


4.5 G.2: Problems in Indian Education

1.   The growth of Education from 1901 to 1947, with reference to important landmarks highlighting the British designs and bringing out the inter-relationship between education and political, social and economic life of the people.

2.   The growth of Education from 1947 onwards, with special reference to the reports of the University Education Commission, the Secondary Education Commission, the Education Commission: 1964-66, and the National Policy on Education 1986 and its review Committees.

3.   A critical study of the problems related to:

                     i.        Pre-Primary Education

                   ii.        Primary Education

                  iii.        Secondary Education

                  iv.        University Education

                    v.        Vocational Education

                  vi.        Adult Education

                vii.        Professional Education





4.5 H.1 : Principles of Curriculum Construction


Theoretical bases for designing curriculum. Sources of curriculum content: cultural heritage or knowledge in terms of identifiable disciplines and their modes of inquiry; generalised knowledge about human behaviour; societal forces, e.g. common problems of living, problems of inter-personal relationships, problems relating to common efficiency, social processes and structures, problems connected with the development of individual potentialities; contemporary human situation. Professional knowledge about curriculum development and planning: Current patterns of curriculum organisation and development.


4.5 H.2 : Evaluation and Research in Curriculum Construction


Curriculum theory and its implications for elementary, secondary and college education. Assessment of curriculum suggested through the national reports on elementary and secondary stages of school education. Survey of research in curriculum construction. Development of curriculum unit in some field of study.






4.5 I.1 : Education of the Gifted


1.   Evolution of the concept of giftedness:

(a) Ideological.

(b) Historical.

2.   Current trends in definitions, characteristics and identification procedure.

3.   Gifted special population – underachievers, handicapped and disadvantaged- need for a new perspective.

4.   Creativity: concept, identification and methods of fostering creativity.

5.   Education of the gifted :

(a) Development needs at different stages.

(b) Curriculum modification.

(c) Administrative/organisational provision.

(d) Teacher preparation.

6.   Research perspectives in the field of education for the gifted.


4.5 I.2 : Education of the Backward


1. Special Education :

(a) Historical perspective.

(b) Contemporary trends.

(c) Classification : a critical overview.

(d) Alternatives schemes.

2. Causes of academic dysfunction:

(a) Internal.

(b) External.

3. Identification and educational provisions-holistic approach:

(a) Children with specific learning disabilities.

(b) Children suffering from developmental lags.

(c) Children with no apparent cause for learning difficulties.

(d) Children with specific learning problems in readings and mathematics.

4. Teacher preparation.

5. Providing for community involvement and parental participation: planning and sensitisation.

6. Research trends in this area and their impact on educational policies for academically dysfunctional children.






4.5 J.1 : Child Health and Physical Handicaps


Definition of Health, Relationship between the child's health and his/her mental and physical functioning, assessment of health. Factors that can affect the child's health and development before birth; at the time of birth; after birth; precautions that might help to reduce incidence of various handicaps.


Causes, treatment and programmes of the following with reference to the educational implications of the children affected by them.


Cerebral Palsy and other injuries Poliomylitis; Post meningitis; Epilepsy; Mongoloid deficiency; Spinal Microcepholy Bifida and Hydrocephalus; Congenital heart disease. Rheumatic fever; Asthma; Bronchiectasis; Diabetes Mellitus; Muscular Dystrophy; Speech disorders; etc. Categories and their incidence. Psychology of the Physically Handicapped. Family reaction to having a physically handicapped child, the child's own reactions to his handicap; General management for the mental child, the family and the community. Changing attitudes to the physically handicapped. Problems of parents and children.


4.5 J.2 : Education of the Physically Handicapped


Needs of special groups, e.g. the partially sighted; the partially-hearing; the speech- handicapped; cerebral palsied; Brain-injured; the Epileptic; Delicate children; Orthopaedically handicapped; the autistic child; etc. Educational implications of their particular needs, ascertainment procedures and school placement. Specific learning difficulties : problems in the organisation of educational provisions for the various categories. Special techniques of teaching reading, methods and materials. Developments in India, Rehabilitation programmes. Vocational placement and follow up. Teacher preparation.






4.5 K.1: Theoretical Bases of Educational Planning and Finance


Education for social and economic development. Education as investment, consumption and welfare activity. Economic demand vs social, cultural and political demand for education. Concepts of Physical Capital, Human Capital and Human Resources and their distinctive features. Relative importance of investment in Human Capital and Physical Capital. Roles of Elementary, Secondary, Vocational and Technical, Higher and Professional Education in the Development of Human Resources.


Educational planning at Micro, Macro and Institutional levels. Approach to educational planning : The Social Demand Approach, Cost Benefit Approach, Social Justice Approach and Manpower Planning Approach. Modes of Educational Planning. Projections of enrolment and Manpower forecasting. Estimation of equity and regional imbalances of education. Educational Planning for alternative modes of education: correspondence, distance and open learning systems.


Investment choices and financing in human capital and human resource development. Issues in financing of education. Federal financing.


Educational costs : Concepts and types viz. social cost, private cost, institutional cost, opportunity cost, marginal cost and unit cost. Unit cost analysis of educational projects. Social and private benefits and their measurement.


Education policy and programme analysis and its impact on development of institutional structures and their resource implications.


4.5 K.2 : Educational Planning and Finance In India


Organization, administration and control of education in India: Role of Central, State Government and Local Bodies.

Process of formulation of educational plans in India. Mechanism of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation: Center and State Levels. The role of the National Development Council, the Planning Commission and the State Planning Boards, and State Councils for Higher Education etc.; Decentralized Planning: Distance, Block and Institutional.


Equity and Regional imbalances in Educational Development in the Indian context.


Factors influencing growth of expenditure of education: Education, Economic Policy Related and Budgetary. Critical examination of the policies of the Government in respect of allocation of resources to different levels of education. Trends in the growth of the plan and non-plan expenditure at current and constant prices since 1970-71.


Sources of Funding : Financing of Education by Central Government, State Governments and Local Bodies. Centre and State Relationship in financing of education. Central grants, rationale and system. State grants – rationale and system. Role of Finance Commission. Community Resources - nature and extent. Measures for mobilising private resources, Evolving National Policy.


Educational development in India during Five Year Plans. Critical examination of Educational Policy and Programme thrusts in the light of NPE (1986) and POA at different levels of education. Unemployment, underemployment and disguised employment of human resources.






4.5 L.1: Instructional Technology

1.   Educational Technology (E.T.): Historical development. Concept, Types and Scope.

2.   Teaching: different concepts and their implications.

3.   Various levels of Teaching and Learning.

4.   Instructional Theory: Concept, nature and types, with special reference to Cognitive Construct Theories (Bruner and Ausubel), Task Analysis Theory, Systems Approach and Information Processing Theory.

5.   Instructional Procedures: Teaching of Concepts and Principles. Teaching for problem solving.

6.   Models of Teaching: Concept, nature and major types, with special reference to CAM, AOM, ITM (Suchman), Jurisprudential Inquiry.


Practicum : Any one of the following:

1.   Designing an instructional programme based on Systems Approach.

2.   Preparation of instructional material based on CAM/AOM/ ITM/JIM.

3.   Preparation and use of instructional material for teaching at various levels of teaching and learning.

4.   Preparation of instructional material for teaching of concepts/ principles/problem solving.


4.5 L.2 : Instructional Media and Theory

1.   Communication: (i) concept, process and components: Unidirectional and interactive communication. (ii) Teaching-learning as a communication process, factors influencing classroom communication.

2.   Media: Concept, characteristics, uses and limitations of various media. Media- selection and integration, Multi-media packages and their uses in formal, non-formal and distance education. Media development policy, programmes and strategies.

3.   Instructional Design: Concept and components. Individualized Instruction (Programmed instruction, Keller's plan, Mastery learning), small-group instruction, Large-group instruction.

4.   Teacher Behaviour Modification: Micro-teaching, Simulation, Interaction Analysis, Competency Based Teacher Education.

5.   Open/Distance learning systems: Concept, need, characteristics and scope, nature of learning materials, evaluation and feedback.

6.   Research in Educational Technology: Trends and priority areas.


Practicum : Any one of the following:

1.   Developing an instructional programme.

2.   Evaluation of a media-based educational programme.






4.5 M.1 : Theoretical Bases of Science Education

1.   Historical Evolution of Science: Pre-scientific era, emergence of modern science, significant developments in natural science.

2.   Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry

(a) Science as a body of knowledge

(b) Science as method

(c) Science as social enterprise

3. Philosophical Context of Science Education;

(a) Epistemological bases of Science: Intuition, reason and observation (experimentation)

(b) Theory building in Science.

4. Psychological Context of Science Education:

(a) Science education in relation to cognitive development and approaches to learning.

(b) Instructional design in science education – concept attainment (Ausubel, Bruner), inductive thinking (Taba), inquiry training (Suchman).

5. Sociological Context of Science Education :

(a) Science, technology and society : a critical appraisal of their interface.

(b) Science education in the context of developing countries.

6. Creativity in Science :

(a) Meaning and scope – role of creativity in science education.

(b) Science education and enhancement of creative thinking.


4.5 M.2 : Practical Aspects of Science Education

1.   Critical review of the recommendations of the Tara Devi Seminar. Kothari commission, and Science Policy (1958) and NPE (1986) with regard to Science Education and Science Curricula followed thereafter.

2.   Objectives of Teaching Science at different levels.

3.   Problems in Science Education related to areas like administration, teacher, curriculum, etc.

4.   (a) Curriculum Design in Science Education.

     (b) Curricular innovations in Science : a detailed study of any one science curriculum with a view to improve our present curricula

       (indigenous or from abroad).

5. (a)  Role of NCERT, SCERTs, DIETs, Directorates of Education and Colleges of Education for quality science education, with special reference to pre-service and in-service science teacher education programmes.

   (b)  Role of administrators, supervisors, inspectors and science counsellors for the improvement of science education.

6. Development of auto-instructional material in a specific area of science.

7. Research in Science Education:

(a) Survey of recent researches.

(b) Possible areas of research in science education.






4.5 N.1 : The Conceptual Framework

1. The traditional normative disciplines: Philosophy; Law and Humanities : their genesis and points of view.

2. New Social Sciences - Economics, Sociology, Political Science, Social Psychology, History, Human Geography, Education : their genesis and point of view.

3. Distinction and di-chotomies between natural sciences and social sciences.

4. Dimensions in social sciences: social thought, social change, social continuity and social progress.


4.5 N.2 : Contributions to Human Knowledge

1. Method of research in social science: Analysis, synthesis, inference, model building and prediction

2. Inter-disciplinary nature of Social Science research

3. Problems in various social science areas, with reference to the Indian situation.

4. Study of the contribution of the following to the development of social sciences : Herodotus, Machiavelli, Gibbon, Locke, Adam Smith, Marx, Manu, Kautilya, Gandhi and Confucius.






4.5 O.1 : Perspectives in Language Education

1. Language: nature and functions.

Linguistics: nature, functions, major branches.

Structural linguistics, applied linguistics and their relevance in and contribution to language teaching and learning.

Principles of Language and Language Learning:

a.   The Indian tradition : Yask, Panini, Patanjali, Bhatrihari

b.   The Western tradition: the behaviouristic and the cognitive-code. Psychology of Language Learning: principle, psycho-linguistic aspects, the nature and acquisition of grammar.


2. Language Teaching and Learning:

 Language Learning and Language Acquisition :

-    Teaching the first language, the second language and other languages.

-    Factors affecting teaching and learning of languages.

-    Language syllabus and curriculum: influences, dimensions, objectives, selection of content, transaction and evaluation.

-    Theoretical and pedagogic aspects of language skills with particular reference to reading and writing.

-    Evaluation of Language Learning: discrete vs. wholistic approach, innovative techniques.

-    Audio-lingual, Communicative innovative techniques.

3.    Individualisation of Language Learning: need, various techniques including programmed material.

4.    Teaching Language and Teaching Literature: nature, inter-relationship, differences, techniques, evaluation

5.    Creativity in Language Education

6.    Research in Language Education: Status, trend gaps and priorities.


4.5 O.2 : Problems of Language Learning in India

1.    Multilingual context of India.

     Provisions in the Indian Constitution.

Various Language Education Institutions in India: CIEFL, CIIL, KHS etc;

2.    Problems related to (a) status and objectives and (b) medium of education.

3.    Curriculum development, pedagogy of language education, development of instructional material and evaluation.

4.    Preparation of language teachers Pre-service, In service programmes: Distance Education Programmes, problems and alternative course designs.

5.Policy formulation and Language Education: National level, status and need survey, trend analysis, three-language formula; lessons from other multi-lingual countries viz; Russia, Israel, Canada etc.






4.5 P.1 : Theoretical Framework

1.    Meaning and scope of Sociology :

      (a)    Sociology of Education;

      (b)    Educational Sociology;

      (c)    Social Foundations of Education;

2.     Scope of Educational Sociology : Society as a system of interrelated parts; Social institutions : Functions of social institutions and how they change; Education as a social institution : a sub-system in the society; Education and other sub-systems, the internal structure of roles and status etc. within educational systems; Education as an agency of socialisation.

3.     Culture and education: Psycho-cultural studies on child and society - identity formation - characterological development in culture - compression and cultural learning - methodology and communication system.

4.     Formal education as a social system : its structure and functions- how these differ from one society to another. Relationship between the educational system and other elements of social systems such as political order, economic order, ideology and value systems.

5.     School and class-room as a social system : Major roles and status, (students teachers and administrators) Analysis of interrelationships between teacher- students, teacher-teacher, teacher-administrator, etc. Linking the individual and the school as a unit, within the educational system as a whole.


4.5 P.2 : Implications of Education for Society

1.           A historical review of the Indian educational system with a view to comprehend its social, political and economic background.

2.           Education and Social Stratification: Social classes, tensions and role of education in their solution.

3.           Social Context of Student Unrest: Educational backwardness of various social groups like scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes, women and the minorities.

4.           Sociology of the Educational profession: Social background of teachers-teacher motivations – professionalisation - problems facing the educational profession.

5.           Education and Inequality: Equality of opportunity-Education as an agent of increasing inequality-Schools based on inequality of wealth - rural and urban differences.






4.5 Q.1 : Education and the Arts

An exploration through readings, critical writings and studio experiences of Philosophers, Educationists and Artists. The relationship among the four arts - Dance, Drama, Music and Literature. Visual arts and their implication for Education. Problems in curriculum, developmental methods of teaching arts for different stages. An examination of language use, art criticism and some basic theories of education as they pertain to practical training in literal, visual and performing arts.


4.5 Q.2 : Problems and Issues in Art Education

Introduction to current conception of the function of Art Education within the cultural milieu. Contemporary trends in Art Education as related to Secondary School Curriculum : A critical study of the selection of content, instructional methods and evaluation system in Art in relation to the recent developments in contemporary arts. Aesthetic basis for teaching of Art in Schools.






4.5 R.1 : Equality and Education-Sociological Perspective

Introduction: class, status, ethnicity and sex as categories of analysis in the sociology of education.

1.   The relation between education, mobility, educational opportunity and social change.

2.   The Equality of Educational Opportunity Debate in India, with special reference to Muslims, the Schedule Castes/Tribes and women.

3.   Alternatives in education, the de-schooling movement.

4.   The new sociology of education.


4.5 R.2: Equality and Education with Special Reference to Women

1.   Gender as the basis of inequality in education: problems of access, retention, stagnation and drop-out.

2.   Structure of domination and control: the family and the school in India

3.   Women in higher education and as professionals: the fear of success syndrome, feminisation of occupations, discrimination at the place of work.

4.   Strategies for change: the role of women’s studies in education.






4.5 S.1 : Framework and Dimensions of Business Education

1.   Business Education: concept and scope

2.   Needs of Business Education - Sociological, Philosophical and Psychological.

3.   Division of Business Education - Academic and Vocational Streams.

4.   Curriculum Development in Business Education-Levels and Contents.

5.   Structure of Business Education - comparison of Business Education in India with that in U.K., U.S.A. and China

6.   New developments in Business Education, with special reference to Voucher Based Accounting and Electronic Accounting.


4.5 S.2 : Communication in Business Education

1.   Various Agencies involved in Business Education - various curricula and techniques.

2.   Business Education and Innovations in Training.

3.   Programmed Learning and Simulation in Business Education.

4.   Business Education and Information Technology.

5.   Coordination of Industry with Business Education Institutions.

6.   Business Education for special groups.

7.   Research in Business Education – status, trends and priority areas.




Curriculum and Pedagogy in the Elementary School


4.5 T.1 : Knowledge and the Elementary School Curriculum


Understanding and conceptualising knowledge : Distinguishing between knowledge and information, knowledge as construction of meaning and critical thinking (drawing upon the development of critical theory). Exploring the nature of different kinds of knowledge : disciplinary and pedagogical, knowledge of educational contexts, goals and aims within historical and contemporary contexts, knowledge of learners; selection of knowledge in designing curricula; implications of different kinds of knowledge for teaching and for ways of helping all students learn.


Foundations of curriculum and curricula enquiry : Understanding the historical, philosophical and sociological foundations of curriculum, critically examining frameworks of the elementary school curriculum within current debates an political/cultural conflicts and the issue of curriculum change. Developing perspectives and frameworks of analysis of curriculum aims and context. Distinguishing between curriculum, syllabus and the textbook, exploring the relationship between curriculum and policy and curriculum and learning.


Students are expected to present a focussed project, capturing episodes(s)/ unit (s) of teaching and learning; relate their project findings to one or more of the theoretical themes such as nature of knowledge and inquiry, distinction between knowledge and information, philosophy of curriculum and pedagogy.


4.5 : T.2 Knowledge, Pedagogy and the Process of Learning


Perspectives and Paradigm shifts in the conceptions of learning : Critically examining different views of the nature of learning, (drawing upon theoretical frameworks of constructivism and cultural psychology). Developing an understanding of learning within the social context; an in-depth analysis of conceptions of learning rooted in conventional school practices and folk pedagogy. Evolving conceptions of pedagogical knowledge as an integration of knowledge about the learner, disciplinary knowledge, knowledge of curriculum and the educational contexts and aims; nurturing inquiry and supporting children’s learning.


Pedagogy and the curriculum : Issues of teaching and learning such as medium of instruction, personalising knowledge, the process of transforming subject- matter knowledge into teaching materials and pedagogic strategies for elementary classrooms. Exploring children's early conceptions of science and mathematics, cross curricula learning, developing understanding of alternative frameworks within which children interpret their experiences and evolving frameworks for redesigning curriculum in specific domains. Evolving relationships between teaching, learning and understanding, understanding the nature of teachers' professional knowledge and developing the practice of reflective teaching.


Students are expected to undertake analysis of text-material and syllabi and/or case studies of children’s early understanding of scientific and mathematical concepts and reasoning, pedagogies outside the formal system; relate their observations to theoretical frameworks and themes, such as the constructivist/alternative frameworks and the concept of reflective teaching/practice.





4.5 U1: Cultural Context of Cognition and Education


Perspectives and Conceptual Framework of Cognition : Critique of cognitive scientism as the 'mainstream' view; interface between socio-cultural, socio-lingual and psychological aspects of cognition; cultural-contextual perspective of cognition with particular reference to the multi-cultural and multi-lingual Indian context; folk psychology and folk pedagogy; scope of the mind and the very possibility of education for human development.

Cognition in Context : A brief overview of theories of cognitive development in cultural context, with special reference to Vygotsky's sociocultural-historical perspective and its educational implications; individual cognitive development and cultural change; Neo- Vygotskian approach to understanding cognition as a situated cultural practice as exemplified by seminal works of contemporary theorists such as Cole, Scribner, and Rogoff, and its bearing on educational research and classroom practice.


Contexts for Teaching and Learning : Children's culture and culture of schooling; critiquing teacher's traditional views of children's cognition; an alternative view of teaching and learning as participation in a community of elementary learners; construction and transmission of shared knowledge in the culture of collaborative learning.


4.5 U.2 : Cognition in Children and Schooling


Children's Thinking : Examining specific aspects of children's thinking such as development of causality, concepts of time, space and number; reasoning and problem solving, meta-cognition skills; relationship between language and thought, social perception and cognition; and children's drawing and play : topics to be discussed with the help of relevant theoretical perspective.

Cognitive Development and Schooling : Emergence of early numeracy and literacy, symbolization and moral reasoning in pre-to upper-primary school children from cognitive-developmental and socio-psychological perspectives; cognitive style as related to cognitive development ; educational implications of socio-cultural diversity in students' preferred styles of thinking and communicating.

Variability in Educational Achievement : Cultural and social-class variability in educational performance; prevention and early intervention in elementary schools; traditional and alternative dynamic assessment for young children with diverse socio-cultural backgrounds; implications for educational policy and reform : topics to be discussed in context of the Indian educational system and its relationship with society.


Note :


The students will be expected to undertake some of the following assignments with special reference to the Indian context :

     i.        Reading basic texts in child development;

   ii.        A thoughtful engagement with selected original writings of Vygotsky and contemporary cognitive psychologists and pedagogues;

  iii.        Writing at least two position papers;

  iv.        translating theory into practice via applicative assignments or an individually designed project. A list of some of the suggested applicative assignments/projects are :

·         an empirical investigation of an aspect of cognition in children, such as development of causality, reasoning and problem solving, etc.

·         naturalistic observations on low-income children's preschool literacy experiences.

·         evaluation of an educational initiative (school or community based) to improve achievement strivings and performance of socio-culturally different children.

·         designing and running a pilot study on the role of collaboration in learning.

·         to study psycho-social dynamics of classroom context by applying micro- ethnographic techniques.

·         to develop an informal, performance-based evaluation strategy to assess young children from backgrounds that are culturally, linguistically, or economically different from dominant mainstream culture.






4.5 V I : Conceptual Framework

1.   Perception related to terminologies and evolving concepts - Environment Education, Environmental Approach and Environment Studies.

2.   Traditional view regarding Human-Nature relationship from multi-cultural Indian perspective: reference to traditional systems of conservation and use of environment and natural resources; social movements and conflicts on issues concerning society - environment interface. The emerging environmental concern at the global level in the context of development crisis; a historical view of the involvement of UN and other international agencies; constitutional and legal dimensions; the impact of recent policies of globalisation (with emphasis on alternative and diverse perspectives emerging from people's struggles).

3.   Towards a philosophy for the study of the environment : Understanding the environment and its components; relation between environment and ecology; bio-diversity; the philosophical, sociological, economic, ecological, political and anthropological aspects of the study of the environment; the gender perspective; human alienation from nature and a holisitc and constructivist approach to environment.

4.   The nature of environmental issues and the response of education : an examination of issues such as energy, ecology, population, food and natural resources with reference to the relationship between nature and society; sustainable development and its socio-economic basis; concern for environment and human existence; the need for environment studies.


4.5 V II : Curricular and Pedagogical Issues

1.   Curriculum and cognitive development of children - existence of EVS as a subject at the primary level; space for children's ideas in the curriculum. Curriculum related to the study of environment at various levels of school education – shifts from an environmental approach to an emphasis on building conceptual structures and perspectives related to environment, from an integrated framework to a disciplinary or subject - based curriculum and from skill - based to concept - based curriculum; thematic organisation of the curriculum.

2.   Pedagogical approaches to the study of environment such as enquiry, case study and field work.

3.   Organisation of knowledge for the study of environment in the school curriculum : the science and social science aspects; the study of the environment as a component of life sciences, physical sciences, economics, geography and history; enmeshing the study of environment with learning of language and mathematics; critical examination of the existing curriculum and texts; the problem of organising curriculum and textbooks in the context of pedagogical approaches.

4.   Innovations and Innovative structures : to be discussed with the help of illustrative examples.

5.   Teacher Education for the orientation of teachers.

6.   Research studies.

Note: During course work, students are expected to undertake the following: (i) analysis of syllabi and text-material; (ii) case studies of children's understanding of scientific concepts related to environment; (iii) analysis of pedagogies used for the study of environment; (iv) evaluation of an innovation and/or an innovative structure; (v) evolving alternative approaches to the teaching of EVS.






4.5 W 1 : Reading : Processes and Pedagogy Part-I


1. Foundations of Reading

a.   Critique of earlier views about the reading process: Reading as a perceptual process. The narrow definition of reading as decoding.

b.   Psycholinguistic perspective on reading: Major insights into the reading process provided by Ken Goodman and Frank Smith. Reading viewed as a constructive process. The use of language cueing system while reading, prediction, and meaning construction.


Miscue analysis: Students will be required to do a project on miscue analysis to gain insights into the reading process.


2. Reading Comprehension

a.   Schema theoretic view of reading comprehension. Factors affecting comprehension including reader’s prior knowledge, vocabulary, and text structure.

b.   Meta cognition; purposes for reading and comprehension monitoring

c.    Content area reading : Expository test structure and reading strategies.


3. Response to Literature


The emotive aspect of reading. The role of the reader and the reading transaction.


4. Writing Process


The related nature of reading and writing: Reading-writing connections. Purposes and types of writing. The process writing approach.


4.5 W 2 : Reading : Processes and Pedagogy Part-II


1.    Early Reading Development

a.    Critique of the reading readiness perspective

b.    Emergent Literacy. A developmental model of learning to read instructional implications

2.     Socio-cultural Aspects of Literacy

Literacy experience and achievements of children from diverse backgrounds

Home and school literacy. Discontinuity theory

Multicultural perspectives on literacy

3.    Reading in the second language

Reading Difficulties

Examining beliefs about reading difficulties

Problems related to the reader, text (issues related to readability and concerns about readability formulas), and context (schools) Assessing reading difficulties

4.    a.    Literacy instruction in the Indian classroom context in first and second languages.

b.    Assessment of Reading.